Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism

book cover

The Rise and Fall of Sogyal Rinpoche

Mary Finnigan/Rob Hogendoorn

How did a Tibetan refugee with no formal religious training become the most powerful Tibetan Buddhist leader in the West and a best-selling author, while he beat, abused and humiliated his followers?

This book finally sheds light on a decades-long story of deception and moral corruption that is the background to the life of the infamous Tibetan lama, Sogyal Rinpoche, who died on August 28, 2019, in Bangkok, aged 72.

Co-authors Mary Finnigan and Rob Hogendoorn have traced the entire history of Sogyal, from his origins in a family of traders in rural Tibet, through their flight to India after the Chinese invasion, to his arrival in Cambridge, England, accompanied by the Prince of Sikkim. It was here that Mary, a professional journalist, first met him in 1973.

This renowned guru, who came to be revered by thousands around the world, was accused of violating dozens of his aides and devotees over the past thirty years. The authors – an investigative reporter and a specialist in Tibetan Buddhism – have gathered all available evidence from victims and eyewitnesses to tell a tale of sexual exploitation, physical violence, emotional manipulation and relentless denigration. It was all perpetrated by a holy man with fabricated credentials and covered up by his foundation.

Living secretly in self-imposed exile in Thailand for the past two years while being treated for colon cancer, he remained beyond the reach of police investigations and civil suits underway in five countries. His organization, the Rigpa Fellowship, is still in business, with over a dozen active centers in the West.

Early complaints from his followers were met with denials and doctrinaire obfuscations. Then in the mid-1990s, soon after publication of Sogyal’s best-selling The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, more women came forward with accusations. In the UK, the mainstream media started to take an interest. Mary Finnigan’s piece in the Guardian and her broadcast on BBC Radio 4 were followed by Mick Brown’s cover feature in the Telegraph Magazine.

Galvanized by the #MeToo and Time’s Up movements, the trickle of accusations has slowly turned into a flood in recent years. His organization’s cover-up attempts wore thin after the Dalai Lama himself stepped in.

The book does not sensationalize the perverse behavior that caused untold suffering to scores of devotees. It’s a fact-based account, backed by exhaustive research grounded in decades of first-hand knowledge by two Buddhist practitioners. It’s also a story about the culture clash that occurs when an exotic émigré from a feudal, patriarchal Tibet is greeted with unwitting acceptance and adulation by spiritual seekers in 21st-century liberal democracies.

Bibliographic Data
Title:  Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of Sogyal Rinpoche
ISBN-13: 978-0-9863770-9-9
Publisher: Jorvik Press
Publication date: July 1, 2019
List Price: US $19.95; UK £15.95; EU €17.95
Size: Trade paperback, 6 x 9 in (15.24 x 22.86 cm)
204 pages; 25 B&W illustrations

Mary Finnigan and Rob Hogendoorn

Mary Finnigan was born in Manchester, England just before the start of World War II. Marrying an older man at eighteen, she produced two children before moving to London and landing a job as a fashion writer on the Daily Mirror. Her print journalism career included feature writing at the Daily Sketch, Daily Express and freelance at the Sunday Times and The Guardian.

During a five-year holiday from the five-day week, in 1969 she met the legendary rock star David Bowie, who introduced her to Tibetan Buddhism. Her devotion to this comprehensive spiritual path has remained steadfast ever since.

Returning to her journalism career, Mary worked as a reporter, editor and producer at Visnews, Independent Radio News and the London Broadcasting Company.

Mary met Sogyal Lakar, aka Rinpoche, in 1973, helping him to set himself up as a lama before becoming skeptical about his credentials. With her journalistic training running in tandem with her appreciation for Tibetan Buddhism, she embarked on a campaign to match contemporary ethical values with the fundamentals of Buddhist view and practice.

Mary and her co-author Rob Hogendoorn pooled their skills and resources after meeting on social media. Mary lives in Devon, England with her partner Chris Gilchrist. 

Rob Hogendoorn (1964) studied law at the Erasmus University at Rotterdam, Netherlands. After graduating as a Master of Law, he worked as a coordinator for the Centre for Applied Ethics at its Faculty of Philosophy, co-editing two books on environmental philosophy.

In 1993-1994, he spent a year among Tibetan communities in India, researching law from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective. After that, he focussed his research on the Fourteenth Dalai Lama’s conversations with (mostly) Western scientists. To this end, he attended several Mind & Life conferences and summer schools and taught about Mind & Life during a Science for Monks workshop in Sera Monastery in India.

For the past six years he has researched and published on sexual abuse by Buddhist teachers, both as an investigative reporter and an unaffiliated scholar.

The last two years he has focussed on researching the formative years of Sogyal Lakar, formerly known as Sogyal Rinpoche. He presented a paper on his findings during the 2018 meeting of the American Academy of Religion in Denver, Colorado.

Rob is married with three adult children. He lives in Maasland, near Rotterdam, in the Netherlands.

Author comments on the legacy
of a fugitive Tibetan lama

Sogyal Lakar, aka Sogyal Rinpoche, died in Bangkok on August 28, 2019, after a long battle with colon cancer. For the past two years he had been on the run from criminal and civil suits in several countries. Authors Mary Finnigan and Rob Hogendoorn reflect on his legacy.

Mary: “I sympathise with those who are bereaved by his passing but Sogyal's death does not alter the facts of his life. Karma is inexorable so as a Buddhist I think his passage through the after-death state will be a rough ride. In the 45 years since I first met him and helped him get established in London, I have watched a life of depravity and excess unfold in the name of enlightenment. The physical and psychological injuries inflicted on his many victims drove me to write this book.”

Rob: “I don’t rejoice in anyone’s death, and I empathise with Sogyal’s son, Yeshe. I feel much more sympathy for Sogyal Lakar’s countless victims, many of whom remain anonymous and neglected even now. I also believe that it is illustrative that it is only after his passing, and now he is out of reach of the judiciary, that his entourage publicly confirms that Sogyal hid in Thailand. Sadly, it goes to show how manipulative Sogyal and his entourage remained until the very end.”



Report in the Guardian, September 2, 2019

Trustee of UK charity
‘covered up abuse’
by Buddhist guru

Rigpa Fellowship’s Patrick Gaffney
had knowledge of improper acts,
watchdog found

A British charity founded by a disgraced Buddhist guru, who died last week after he was accused of sexual misconduct towards some of his followers, faces further controversy after it emerged that one of its trustees was found responsible for covering up abuse.

Patrick Gaffney was a trustee of the Rigpa Fellowship, which was founded by the Tibetan guru Sogyal Lakar, known as Sogyal Rinpoche, who died aged 72 in Thailand on Wednesday after going into hiding following the claims.

Weeks before Lakar’s death, Gaffney – the guru’s right-hand man who co-edited his bestselling The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying – was banned by a watchdog from working with charities for eight years.

The British devotee, 70, who Lakar described as “one of my oldest and closest students” after the pair met at Cambridge University in 1970, faced the sanction after an inquiry by the Charity Commission.

Read article in the Guardian


Obituary in the New York Times, September 1, 2019

Sogyal Rinpoche Dies; Tibetan Buddhist
Lama Felled by Abuse Accusations

A friend of the Dalai Lama’s, he wrote a popular book about life, death
and the afterlife that updated “The Tibetan Book of the Dead.”

Sogyal Rinpoche, a charismatic Tibetan Buddhist teacher and best-selling author who abruptly retired after several of his students accused him of multiple acts of sexual, physical and emotional abuse, died on Aug. 28 in a hospital in Thailand. He was in his early 70s.

The cause was a pulmonary embolism, his care team announced. He had received a diagnosis of colon cancer in September 2017.

Two months earlier, his reputation as a popular teacher of Buddhism and longtime friend of the Dalai Lama’s unraveled when eight students wrote a damning, heart-rending letter that outlined allegations of years of abuse by Sogyal Rinpoche against them.

“Why did you inflict violence upon us and our fellow Dharma brothers and sisters?” they wrote, describing incidents that had set him off, like his food not being hot enough, his assistant being inattentive or his girlfriends upsetting him. (Sogyal Rinpoche was not a monk.)

Read full obituary here


Obituary in the Telegraph, London, August 29, 2019

Sogyal Rinpoche, author of the bestselling ‘Tibetan Book of Living and Dying’ who spectacularly fell from grace after allegations of sexual abuse and profligacy

Sogyal Lakar, known as Sogyal Rinpoche, who has died aged 72, was a Tibetan Buddhist lama whose book, The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, made him, after the Dalai Lama, perhaps the most globally recognised Buddhist teacher.

Published in 1994, and notionally based on an ancient mortuary text known as the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Sogyal’s book provided a readily accessible introduction to the Buddhist teachings on a happy life and good death.

The growing interest in Tibetan Buddhism, largely through the activities of the Dalai Lama, and the rise of the hospice movement and a more open discussion about “how we die”, made the book extremely timely.

Clinicians and psychologists applauded it for the comfort it offered to the terminally ill, and the actor and comedian John Cleese described it as “one of the most helpful books I have ever read”.

It went on to sell more than three million copies around the world, making Sogyal something of a spiritual celebrity and enabling him to establish teaching centres in America, Europe and Australia.

But he was later engulfed in allegations of sexual and physical abuse against his followers that would lead to his downfall. A man once celebrated as one of the most eminent and skilful exponents of the Tibetan Buddhist teachings became instead a symbol of the perils that may arise when Westerners fall in thrall to esoteric spiritual teachings which they may not fully understand, and when Eastern teachers are exposed to the glamour and temptations of celebrity worship.

Read full obituary in the Telegraph



A customer review on by Alex Wilding (4.0 out of 5 stars)

How a charlatan became
both famous and abusive

This book is well worth a read by anyone involved in or interested in any spiritual movement.

It includes an almost forensic – yet very readable – dissection of how a sexually voracious and ultimately abusive, untrained and unqualified opportunist, Sogyal Lakar, seized the opportunity offered by a constellation of factors: Westerners' spiritual hunger and the gullibility that thrives in the needy; an unwillingness to probe; a simple inability to ask the right questions, because of our ignorance; a willingness to indulge the sexual and culinary gluttony of someone believed to be extraordinary; the patriarchal, even misogynistic culture of old Tibet, along with its class-ridden unwillingness to be seen to criticise; the only-too-understandable urge of the Tibetan community – a community that has been slaughtered and tortured out of its own land – to pull together and look after its own, trying to sweep the appalling behaviour of one of its best-known representatives under the sofa. These are some of the ingredients of this ghastly cocktail.

Read review here


A customer review on by "Eli" (4.0 out of 5 stars)

Lamas who Alarm us

Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of Sogyal Rinpoche certainly has an attention-grabbing title – in fact, my first thought was that this was possibly too sensationalistic in tone, a little reminiscent of ‘click-bait’ - but it certainly lives up to its title.
I should preface this review by briefly stating my background and credentials – I’m a Psychologist who has been studying Buddhism for over twenty-five years; mostly in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. I had seen Sogyal Lakar on a couple of occasions in London and Glasgow, at public talks, and briefly spent some time with the Manchester Rigpa group (who were all exceptionally lovely and level-headed people).
My very brief encounter with Sogyal Lakar, was at a London talk (in the late Nineties) where he swiftly (and I sensed reluctantly) signed my copy of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with a mere, dismissive squiggle – I noticed his customary smile and jolly demeanour was notably absent at that point of the evening, as someone near me had called out “How’s your son, Rinpoche?” which seemed (to me at the time) a rather personal question to shout out at your teacher, and appeared (at least to my ears) to have the tone of a taunt. In short, I never felt that all-important ‘karmic connection’ (which Tibetans refer to as Tendrel) towards him, and I felt uncomfortable with the level of fawning bordering on fanaticism that I observed at these large gatherings.

Read full review here


A long read from independent scholar Stuart Lachs
in Open Buddhism, Rob Hogendoorn's new website

Tibetan Buddhism Enters the 21st Century:
Trouble in Shangri-la

"What convinces masses are not facts,
not even invented facts,
but only the consistency of the illusion."

Buddhism in the 21st century is fairly well established, both in the United States of America and in Europe. This is true for the surviving branches of Buddhism: Theravada, Zen or Chan, and Vajrayana or Tibetan Buddhism. Recently both Zen and Tibetan Buddhist groups in the West have been rocked by scandals involving prominent, well-established teachers with titles such as Zen master, Roshi, Rinpoche, Lama, Sakyong, and so on – who are understood by their followers and even by non-followers, to be enlightened beings. Importantly, it is the institutions – that is, the leading authorities representing these traditions – who present these leaders as enlightened beings, and this is also how they have presented themselves to a believing public.

Read full article


Translation of Claude Ardid's report in the satirical weekly, Charlie Hebdo,
on a defamation suit brought by the French Rigpa center, Lerab Ling,
against Midi Libre and a lawyer accused of suggesting they were a cult

Buddhism and Traditions

The rather earthly nirvana of the rapist lama

"Yes, my daughter has been raped several times by Sogyal Lakar." Guy finishes his testimony. The president of the Criminal Court of Montpellier asks him to complete his story. Then he tells of his trip into the heart of Rigpa Lerab Ling, "the sanctuary of awakened activity," a Buddhist center located north of Lodève in Herault. He elaborates on his spiritual retreats, his closeness to Sogyal Lakar, known as "the precious one," the founding lama of the center. He describes how the drama unfolded: "It was in a letter that my daughter told me that she was under his spell. He had made her a puppet. I asked her to file a complaint in court. But a follower of Buddhism, even assaulted, does not rebel against her master."

Sitting behind Guy is the lawyer Jean Baptiste Cesbron, who nods assent. He represents the National Union of Associations for the Defense of Families and Individuals who are Victims of Cults (UNADFI). He is the one who exposed the scandal by granting an interview to the regional newspaper, Midi Libre. He quotes testimony from "students" – all victims of Sogyal Lakar – who report "physical, sexual, emotional and psychological abuse" from the one they worshipped. Cesbron has only done his job. But he is in the dock with Midi Libre, both being sued for defamation. The lawyer is alleged to have suggested that the Buddhist community was a cult. "This is untrue,” he retorts. “My only purpose was to expose the criminally reprehensible practices of a lama who acted with impunity for years."

Cesbron also presents a letter from Sogyal Lakar’s former assistant, who wrote: "In 2014, during the retreat of the senior students at Lerab Ling, he asked us to be generous in offerings: no checks, no credit cards, only cash! What has become of this money? Nobody knows... "

The case is so serious that the assistant ends up filing a complaint with the gendarmerie. Panic among the Buddhists. But nothing happens. The Dalai Lama, who inaugurated the center a few years earlier, is satisfied with a pithy statement: "Sogyal was my friend, but not any more.” As for Matthieu Ricard, close to the Dalai Lama, he kicks the ball into touch: "It is up to the disciples to unmask the fraud. It is not our role to work as vigilantes. Buddhism is not organized, hierarchical, as is the case, for example, with the Catholic Church." Yet he ends up calling Sogyal Lakar's actions "unacceptable." 

Unacceptable, but the "master" continues to pass on his knowledge in Lerab Ling, a kind of Disneyland of Buddhism, nestled on the Larzac plateau. Twenty-five thousand visitors and 4 million euros in annual revenues, an authentic cash cow. It was only in 2016, fearing the wrath of justice, that "the precious one" ended up fleeing to the end of the world.

"Do not expect anything from Buddhism," says Jean-Pierre Jougla, a former lawyer and eternal defender of sects, quoted by the defense attorney, who continues: “Buddhism is a religion like any other, but it is also a feudal society where nobody questions the actions of the leader. A society where the levying of taxes and the droit du seigneur are still in place. But to confess this would create confusion in the heads of the 600,000 French Buddhists. Too bad this lawyer today finds himself in the dock with the accused!” 

The court's decision is due July 17th. 


Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism gives a detailed insight into Sogyal Rinpoche’s place in the institution of Tibetan Buddhism. The authors show how Sogyal, supposedly an enlightened and therefore entirely selfless, sacred Vajrayana master was in fact the opposite, intent on living a high life while maintaining a “harem” of young attractive women to serve his every desire. The authors show how Sogyal was only able to maintain his exalted position because for decades, he received endorsements from Tibetan Buddhism’s highest lamas. The reader will learn of the pitfalls, in spite of their claims to owning wisdom, of unquestioningly following strictly hierarchical religious institutions, especially when they operate on a transcultural level. 
Stuart Lachs
Independent scholar and long-time Chan/Zen practitioner
A fascinating book that sums up decades of in-depth research and personal involvement in a very important and overlooked topic. Mary Finnigan and Rob Hogendoorn's work on sex and violence in Western Buddhist circles offers readers both recent information and incisive insight into the problematic situation of many European Dharma centres. Coming from Buddhist practitioners who wish to preserve their adopted tradition from ethical corruption and help prevent more suffering, this book is very welcome. 
Marion Dapsance PhD,
author Les dévots du bouddhisme and Qu'ont-ils fait du bouddhisme


An article in the Dutch local newspaper
De Schakel MiddenDelfland on Rob Hogendoorn's
co-authorship of Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism

Read full story (page 6)


Dutch readers can check out an article
about the book in Boeddhistisch Dagblad

In ‘Sex and Violence in Tibetan Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of Sogyal Rinpoche’ onthullen co-auteurs Mary Finnigan en Rob Hogendoorn hoe de bekende Tibetaans boeddhistische leraar Sogyal zijn volgelingen seksueel misbruikte, fysiek mishandelde en stelselmatig bedreigde—en hoe dit decennialang werd toegedekt door diens devote entourage.

Read more